By Yadab Bastola
There are only 4 years to reach the deadline for the Millennium Development Goals. At the current date, there is great uncertainty as to whether the Nepal will be able to achieve the goals by the set date. The eight goals set by the UN and 189 participating states out the 192 that are currently joined in the UN, all seek an increase in development throughout the world. The global aim of these goals is to reach a point where the world can be reached and increased efficiency of countries but now seems it is impossible for Nepal to achieve most of the MDGs by 2015 due to a number of factors, including the political catastrophe. The government of Nepal had not made serious efforts to meet the MDGs.
The targets set by the UN for this goal are; to develop fair and open trading and financial systems, with no corruption, development and poverty reduction; to address the special need of the less developed countries; to address the special needs of landlocked developing countries. But the most notable goals and targets that are not yet on track are full and productive employment and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Nepal. Significant challenges also remain in areas like women’s empowerment, protecting biodiversity, providing access to clean water and sanitation and reducing hunger.
Around 7 million Nepalese, which comprise 31 percent of the country’s population, were still below the poverty line. There is a wide gap between the rich and the poor. A total of 3.4 million people go to bed hungry each night. Human rights violations are on the rise. Given the situation, the government should make serious efforts to achieve the MDGs. People of the remote Mid-Western and Far Western regions and some communities in the Tarai are never responded by any of those 8 goals.
Nepal relies heavily on development assistance to implement its development programmes and to reach the MDGs. The last years reports says that poverty dropped from 42 percent in 1996 to 31 percent in 2010, with most of the reduction achieved during the last five years however, one quarter of the population still lives below the national poverty line and inequality is increasing.
However, there are also some progresses as well. According to the last years World Bank’s report, Nepal is 90 percent close to achieving the goal of universal primary education and reducing maternal mortality. Nepal UN country team especially UNESCO and UNICEF are playing the significant role to support for achieving one of the important goals- universal primary educations in Nepal.
Nepal has to be taken serious measures to ensure the implementation of Nepal's international commitments for women's empowerment and gender equality. There is also higher risk increasing of transmission HIV epidemic is concentrated among population , it needs to increase the coverage of HIV prevention activities for risk groups and develop appropriate strategies to reach high-risk Nepali migrant.
Nepal joined the World Trade Organization in 2004 but it remains vulnerable to national economic and trade status. Many of the investors are saying there no satisfactory environment for investment and increase qualities and quantities from existing industries due to security issues in Nepal. There is always obstruction in the work of I/NGOs, community organization and other development partners. Government has not been provided the clear policy guidance on management of the forests on a sustainable basis. More than 80% of the population of Nepal depend on the agriculture but the traditional agricultural has not been changed yet. It has to be changed through increased irrigation facilities, better market access and good qualities of seeds which help to reduce the real poverty in rural level.
However, there are least possibilities that Nepal will achieve all those goals by 2015, but Nepal must act seriously to maintain and has to work continuously to get them. The government of Nepal and the donor community has to have regular dialogue on Aid Effectiveness. Political commitment at the national level is also an important factor to achieve MDGs. There are some achievements and future challenges as well; the challenges are how all stakeholders, public and private sectors can maximize their role and synergize through concerted action based on each party’s expertise for benefits of the country and its people even though the date catches up on.