Prof. Dr. Yogendra Yadav

Gandhian Scholar

Gandhi Research Foundation, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India

Contact No. – 09415777229, 094055338




Goseva Sangh and Mahatma Gandhi



The Cow-protection Conference held at Belgaum on 28th December 1924 resolved to found a permanent body called ‘All-India Cow-protection Association’ and appointed a committee to frame a constitution for it. The Committee met in Delhi on 26th and 28th January 1925, and the constitution drafted by it was adopted with some amendments at a public meeting held in Madhavbag, Bombay, on 28th April 1925. This ‘All-India Cow-protection Association’, having not been able to command such public attention and sympathy as to entitle it to be called an all-India organization, its members met at the Satyagraha Ashram, Sabarmati, on 25th July, 1928, disbanded it and adopted the following resolution:

“Inasmuch as the All-India Cow-protection Association has not been able to command public attention and sympathy commensurate with the all-India character it has claimed, and inasmuch as its activities have been confined to the slow spread of the objects of the Association and especially to helping to conduct a dairy and tannery at the Satyagraha Ashram in terms of the objects of the Association, and inasmuch as the subscriptions and donations are mainly confined to friends who are interested in the experiment, and inasmuch as the numerous goshalas and pinjrapoles which were expected to respond to and be affiliated to the Association have nearly entirely failed to do so, the existing members of the Association resolve to disband it, and not retaining the existence of the Association in any shape or form, to adopt the less pretentious title of Goseva Sangh (Cow-service Society) and irrevocably to entrust the affairs, management and control of the funds and stock of the Association to the following Permanent Standing Committee of management of the Society for names of the members, with full powers to disburse the funds, conduct the said experiments, to add to their number, to fill up vacancies caused by the resignation or the death of a member, to expel a member by a majority vote and otherwise carry out the objects of the expiring Association and to frame a constitution and rule for the management of the Society and to make such amendments thereof as may from time to time be required.” In pursuance of this resolution the Standing Committee of the Cow-service Association hereby adopts the following constitution for it:

The object of the Cow-service Association and the means by which it shall carry on its work are identical with the object and the means of the late All-India cow protection Association, which are as follows:

Whereas the Hindus have failed in cow-protection which is an obligation imposed on them by their religion, and whereas the cows in India and their progeny are deteriorating day by day:

The All India Cow-protection Sabha is formed for the proper fulfillment of the religious obligation of cow-protection. The object of the Sabha shall be to protect the cow and her progeny by all moral means. ‘Cow-protection’ shall mean the protection of the cow and her progeny from cruelty and slaughter.

The Sabha shall carry on its work by the following means:

1. by pleading with those who may be ill-treating cows, bullocks, etc., and by carrying on propaganda against such ill-treatment by means of leaflets, lectures, etc.;

2. by taking charge of diseased and disabled cows and oxen from their owners wherever the latter cannot afford to maintain them;

3. by superintending and inspecting the administration of existing pinjrapoles and cow-protection institutions, and by helping in their better organization and management, as also by establishing fresh institutions; 4. By breeding model cows and draught cattle by means of cattle farms, etc., and by providing clean and cheap milk through properly kept dairies;

5. By opening tanneries for tanning hides of dead cattle and thereby stopping or reducing the export abroad of disabled cattle;

6. by enlisting men of character and education in the cause, and founding scholarships, etc., for training them in the work;

7. By holding an inquiry into the causes of the disappearance of grazing lands and into the advantages or disadvantages thereof;

8. by investigating into the necessity or otherwise of the practice of castrating bulls, and if found necessary and useful, investigating into the possibilities of discovering a harmless method of castration or a wholesome modification in the present method;

9. By collecting funds; and

10. By taking whatever other steps as may be necessary for the work of cow protection.

Any person of the age of eighteen years, who subscribes to the object of the Association, and

1. Who pays to the Association an annual subscription of five rupees; or

2. who sends to the Association 12,000 yards of even and well-twisted self spun yarn; or

3. Who sends to the Association every year two cow or bull hides whether raw or tanned, shall be a member of the Association. Any person who pays to the Association in advance a consolidated amount of

Rs. 500 shall be a life-member of the Association.

This Association has been conceived as a body of servants, who have not so much rights as duties, or to whom duties should be as rights. The following therefore shall be the duties of members:

1. They shall, as far as may be, use only cow’s milk whenever they have an occasion to use milk or milk products.

2. Whenever they have to use leather articles for personal use they shall use only the hides of dead cattle and never use the hides of slaughtered cows or bullocks. With regard to other things made of leather, they shall also, as far as may be, use only dead cattle hide.

3. If members keep cattle for milk, they shall keep cows only and not buffaloes. They will reason with buffalo-keepers to replace buffaloes with cows.

4. They will carry the message of the Association to pinjrapoles, goshalas and similar humanitarian organizations.

5. In case they follow cow-keeping as a profitable occupation, they will devote all profits beyond their maintenance to the cause of cow-protection so long as cow-protection in India has not been placed on a satisfactory footing.

6. They will induce moneyed men to take up dairying and tanning for Humanity’s sake.

7. They will try to acquire the knowledge requisite for carrying on dairying or tanning, and will, wherever possible, seek to maintain themselves through the service of the cow.

Any person, who, while approving of the duties lay on members, is unable to discharge them fully but is anxious to acquire the ability to shoulder them, may be a sympathizer of the Association, provided that he fulfills the conditions of membership in other ways.

The entire administration of the Association shall vest in a Standing Committee consisting of the following members:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (President)

Revashanker Jagjivan Jhaveri (Treasurer)

Jamnalal Bajaj

Vaijnath Kedia

Manilal Vallabhji Kothari

Mahavirprasad Poddar

Shivlal Mulchand Shah

Parameshvariprasad Gupta

Dattatreya Balkrishna Kalelkar

Vinoba Bhave

Chhaganlal Khushalchand Gandhi

Chhaganlal Nathubhai Joshi

Narayandas Khushalchand Gandhi

Surendranath Jayasval

Chimanlal Narasinhadas Shah

Pannalal Balabhai Jhaveri

Yashvant Mahadev Parnerkar

Valji Govindji Desai (Secretary) with full powers to disburse the funds, to conduct dairying and tanning experiments and otherwise carry out the objects of the Association, to add to their number, to fill up vacancies caused by the resignation or death of a member or otherwise, to remove a member by a majority vote on proper and sufficient grounds, to frame a constitution and rules for the management of the Association and to make such amendment thereof as may be required from time to time. Only members of the Association shall be eligible for appointment to and continuance on the Standing Committee.

Five members shall form the quorum for a meeting of the Committee. In case of emergency the president shall have the power of taking necessary action without waiting for calling a meeting of the Committee, and also when there is no quorum at a meeting actually called. The President however shall immediately inform the members of action thus taken. Whenever it is difficult or unnecessary to convene a meeting of the Committee, the Secretary shall have the power to circulate a resolution among members and obtain their votes by correspondence. Such resolution shall be considered as duly agreed to if none of the member’s objects. If a member does not reply within a fortnight, he will be held to have waived his right to object. The books of the Association shall be open to public inspection and shall be audited by competent auditors every year. A statement of accounts shall be published every six months. The treasurer shall be responsible for the account of all the receipts and disbursements, all amounts exceeding one thousand rupees to be kept deposited in a bank of his approval.

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