What can be learnt from oil driven economic growth and living conditions of people in Angola after almost ten years of ceasefire? The end of the Civil War was supposed to bring with it a “peace dividend” in Angola that would release resources for more productive purposes. Instead, we are witnessing an era of economic growth and the modernization of some of its urban infrastructures, but not development in its people. What is at stake in Angola is also at stake elsewhere in Africa. This book helps to distinguish growth from development, provides benchmarks for measuring both, and pointers for possible causal connections between them.