Is there a how-to kit for writing a cease fire agreement? Invitation for discussion

Hello, I've bee invited to work on designing a cease fire agreement between certain rebel groups and government forces. I want to make sure I haven't missed key literature out there, and I'm wondering if anyone can point me to a toolbox of key pieces in a successful ceasefire agreement. Is there any list of must-be-considered issues when writing a cease fire agreement?

Views: 456

Reply to This

Replies to This Discussion

This might help:  Negotiating Ceasefires of the Center for Humanitarian Dialogue


Thank you so much Iulia! I'll take a look and, if you don't mind, I might have some further questions for you!



Also try USIP's website, where they have numerous peace agreements and ceasefire agreements online.

I took a class on this last year, here is the syllabus.  There is a lot here on cultural issues, inclusion, how to handle ongoing violence, etc..  I like Lederach -- besides the book listed, I like "the little book of conflict transformation" as for its cool diagrams of processes.  Sorry for the long posting, everyone, but I'm not sure how to attach this except to paste it.  

John Darby and Roger Mac Ginty, eds., Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict Violence and Peace Processes (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) [CP in this syllabus]


Anthony Wanis-St. John, Back Channel Negotiation: Secrecy in the Middle East Peace Process (Syracuse University Press, 2010) [BCN in this syllabus]


We will also make ample use of a journal published by Conciliation Resources, a UK-based NGO:


Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives [all issues are available at]





Session Date





Introduction to the course


Preliminary readings by Druckman, Bercovitch, Touval & Zartman



Negotiating Peace, Piece by Piece: Aspects, Dynamics and Patterns of Peace Processes

John Paul Lederach, The Moral Imagination (Oxford Unity Press, 2005), ch. 5 “On Peace Accords,” pp. 41-49


John Darby and Roger Mac Ginty, eds. The Management of Peace Processes (St. Martin’s Press, 2000), Introduction and Conclusion, pp. 1-15, 228-262


Lotta Harbom, Peter Wallensteen, “Armed Conflicts: 1946-2009,” Journal of Peace Research, vol. 47, no. 4 (2010): 501-509




Ending Violence: Armenia & Azerbaijan

Accord vol. 17 (2005)


CP, Chs. 2, 3




Getting Parties to the Table: Ecuador & Peru

CP, Chs. 5, 6, 7


BCN, Ch. 2


A. Wanis-St. John, “Third Party Mediation over Kashmir: A Modest Proposal,” International Peacekeeping vol. 4, no. 4 (1997): 1-30


David Scott Palmer, “Overcoming the Weight of History: ‘Getting to Yes’ in the Peru-Ecuador Border Dispute,” Diplomacy and Statecraft, vol. 12, no. 2 (June 2001), pp. 29-47




Issues and Structure: DRC and the Great Lakes

Accord, vol. 9 (2000)


Patricia Daley, “Challenges to peace: conflict resolution in the Great Lakes region of Africa.” Third World Quarterly vol. 27, no. 2 (2006): pp. 303-319


William Lacy Swing, Special Representative of the Secretary-General in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, “Statement to the US Institute for Peace

Washington:” “War, Peace and International Engagement in the Congo,” May 2006 available at





Unity vs. Fragmentation: Sudan

Accord, vol. 18,


Hugo Slim, “Dithering Darfur: A Preliminary Review of the International Response,” International Affairs, vol. 80, no. 5 (October 2004): 811-828


Shadrack Wanjala Nasang’o and Godwin Rapando Murunga, “Lack of Consensus on Constitutive Fundamentals: Roots of the Sudanese Civil War and Prospects for Settlement,” African and Asian Studies, vol. 4, no. 1/2 (2005): 51-82


Lydia Polgreen, U.S. Governor Brokers Truce for Darfur,” New York Times, January 11, 2007 [online edition]




Roles of Third Parties as Mediators: Burundi

Mohammed Maundi, I. William Zartman, Gilbert Khadiagala, Kwaku Nuamah, Getting In: Mediators’ Entry into the Settlement of Africa’s Conflicts (USIP Press, 2006), Ch. 3 “Burundi”


Ron Fisher, “Cyprus: The Failure of Mediation and the Escalation of an Identity-Based Conflict to an Adversarial Impasse,” Journal of Peace Research, vol. 38, no. 3 (2001): 307-326


International Crisis Group, Burundi’s Peace Process: The Road from Arusha ICG Burundi Report no2, July 20, 1998, available at:





Civil Society

ICG, Nepal: From People Power to Peace


BCN, Chs. 4, 5


CP, Chs. 8, 9, 10


Anthony Wanis-St. John and Darren Kew, “Civil Society and Peace Negotiations: Confronting Exclusion,” International Negotiation, vol. 13, no. 1 (2008): 11-36




Violence Resurgent

BCN, Ch. 6


CP, Ch. 11, 12, 13


Anna Höglund, Peace Negotiations In the Shadow of Violence (Martinus Nijhoff, 2008), Ch. 7


Bruce Jones, Peacemaking in Rwanda: Dynamics of Failure (Lynne Rienner, 2001), Ch. 4 “Arusha Negotiations”





International and Domestic Justice: Uganda and the war with the LRA


Interview with Betty Bigombe, to be shown in class


Priscilla Hayner, Negotiating Justice: Guidance for Mediators (Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, January 2009) accessible at


CP, Ch. 23






CP Chs. 13, 14, 15


Hassan Krayem, “The Lebanese Civil War and the Taif Agreement,” in Paul Salem, ed. Conflict Resolution in the Arab World: Selected Essays (American University of Beirut, 1997)


Augustus Richard Norton, “Lebanon After Ta’if: Is the Civil War Over?” Middle East Journal, vol. 45, no. 3 (Summer 1991): 457-473




Roles of Third Parties as Peacekeepers


Fen Osler Hampson, Nurturing Peace: Why Peace Settlements Succeed or Fail (United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996), Ch. 3 Namibia, Ch. 7 The Need to Nurture Peace



Building Peace, Changing Cultures


BCN, Ch. 7


CP,  Chs. 18, 19, 20





Prospects for Negotiating Peace: Iraq, Afghanistan


CP, Chs. 24 and Conclusion


April 26, 2011


Final Peace Process Design memoranda due on Blackboard




Additional resources:


Stephen Farry, “Northern Ireland: Prospects for Progress in 2006?” USIP Special Report 173, September 2006, available at

Bruce Matthews, “In Pursuit of an Interim Administration in Sri Lanka’s North and East: Opportunity or Peace Trap?” The Round Table, vol. 93, no. 373 (January 2004): 75-94

John Stephen Moolakkattu, “Peace Facilitation by Small States: Norway in Sri Lanka,” Cooperation and Conflict vol.  40, no. 4 (2005): 385-402

International Crisis Group, Burundi After Six Months Of Transition: Continuing The War Or Winning Peace? Africa Report no. 46, May 24, 2002, available at

John Prendergast, “U.S. Leadership in Solving African Conflict: The Case of Ethiopia-Eritrea,” USIP Special Report no. 74, September 7, 2001, available at

William Quandt, Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967 (Brookings, 1993)

Laura Zittain Eisenberg and Neil Caplan, Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace: Patterns, Problems, Possibilities (Indiana University Press, 2010)

Scott Sigmund Gartner and Jacob Bercovitch, “Overcoming Obstacles to Peace: The Contribution of Mediation to Short-Lived Settlements,” International Studies Quarterly vol. 50, no. 4 (December 2006): 819-840

Terrence Lyons, Demilitarizing Politics: Elections on the Uncertain Road to Peace (Lynne Rienner, 2005)

George J. Mitchell, Making Peace (Alfred Knopf, 1999)

Paul R. Pillar, Negotiating Peace: War Termination as a Bargaining Process (Princeton University Press, 1983)

John M. Richardson Jr. and Jianxin Wang, “Peace Accords: Seeking conflict resolution in deeply divided societies,” in K.M. de Silva and S.W.R. de A. Samarasinghe, eds., Peace Accords and Ethnic Conflict (International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Sri Lanka: 1993)

Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild and Elizabeth M. Cousens, eds. Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002)



Databases and web-based resources


Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Conflict Database


United States Institute of Peace


Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School

Conciliation Resources


Public Interest Policy Law Group


University for Peace, Peace and Conflict Monitor


United Nations Peacemaker




Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue



Thank you so much!

You should also contact Public International Law and Policy Group (PILPG). I know they were working on a ceasefire template.

Yes, I am a research associate with PILPG and we are currently working on a ceasefire template for USIP. It will be publicly available in spring.

Hello Johannes, thank you very much. I am working as a support researcher for someone who will be writing a cease fire agreement this Spring, to be implemented before this summer. It would be great to be able to run ideas by you if possible. Thank you for your message.

I am not sure if there is a tool kit abut it, However I am convinced that all Cease fire agreements for a future stable peace must include a-discussion and evaluation of he human rights aspects of each anf both of the parties to the cobflict sries ti the conflict to gain trust and respect and not a superficial save facing which does nor last long.

If you are interested  we can dialogue about it,

Shulamith Koenig

You might find this USAID resource useful as well.


Sponsored Link

Please Pay What You Can to Support PCDN

Please consider Paying What You Can to help PCDN grow. We encourage you to consider any amount from $1 and up. Read the SUPPORT page prior to making a payment to see PCDN's impact and how your payment will help.

Sponsored Link

Translate This Page


PCDN Guidelines and Share Pages

By using this site you're agreeing to the terms of use as outlined in the community guidelines (in particular PCDN is an open network indexed by Google and users should review the privacy options). Please note individual requests for funding or jobs are NOT permitted on the network.

Click BELOW to share site resources Bookmark and Share
or Share on LINKEDIN




© 2016   Created by Craig Zelizer.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service